__NOTE
TO THE FILES__

Date: 22 March, 1998

Author: R.A. Beatty

Subject:
__WAS SIR ISAAC
NEWTON AHEAD OF OUR TIME?__

INTRODUCTION

Great
astronomical conundrums include
"*Black Holes*", an "*Expanding Universe*",
the nature of a*
"Gravitational Field*", and the "*Big Bang*".
Modern evidence
points to a series of high density regions in outer space where gravity
is
so strong that nothing can escape including light. These regions are
inferred
where material from an adjacent star, spirals into oblivion at the *Black
Hole*. A primordial *Big Bang* initiation
is postulated to explain
stellar observations showing galaxies moving rapidly away from each
other
in an *Expanding Universe*.

PHYSICAL LAWS

Two
famous laws of physics affect
these conundrums. The first is Newton's *law of gravitation*
where
F_{g} = Gm_{1}m_{2}
÷ r^{2}, and the
second is Albert Einstein's expression E = mc^{2}.

DEDUCTIONS

- From Newton
we can say gravitation in the universe is a function of the mass
contained
therein, and deduce that F
_{u}is proportional to M_{u}(the mean gravitational force in the universe is proportional to the total mass). Also the gravitational force F_{u}in the universe, is a function of the gravitation field G_{f}, and therefore**F**._{u}is proportional to M_{u}is proportional to G_{f} - If we
consider the mass of the universe to be a finite quantity. Einstein's
equation
(E=mc
^{2}) teaches us that the inherent energy (E_{u}) is directly proportional to the mass (M_{u}), or**E**._{u}is proportional to M_{u}

- If E
_{u}is proportional to M_{u}, and G_{f}is proportional to M_{u}, then**G**. When a mass (M) is consumed in a_{f}is proportional to E_{u}*Black Hole,*it initially converts to energy (E), but then reverts to strengthening the background gravitational field (G). This is akin to burning coal in a series of electricity generating stations to feed power into a national grid system. - We also
conclude that if energy, mass, and gravitation are dependent variables,
then
a universal strengthening of the gravitational field increases the
universal
mass. This inference can be drawn from Newton's equation rewritten as F
_{g}Gm_{1}m_{2}÷r^{2}. We usually read this equation to mean the mass and geometry of a system determines its force of gravity. However, conversely we may deduce that the mass is influenced by changes in the system's gravitational field. - This leads
to the possibility of a steady state universe where mass is consumed in
peripheral
*Black Holes*and replaced by mass continuously moving out from the centre. (An apparently*Expanding Universe*.)*Black Holes*fortify the background*Gravitational Field*, which serves to replenish mass throughout the universe, thereby completing the cycle.

COROLLARY

1)
A corollary to these thoughts
is that our Universe is neither expanding nor contracting, but has
reached
a steady state. Matter is cycling through the system as shown, and we
do
not know how many times it has returned. We only know that one cycle
takes
about 15b years, and a "*Big Bang*" is not required
to start a cycle.

2) The mass of objects within the gravitational field should be increasing with time. Refer Note 2 for more on this point.