This essay suggests that the well known "red eye" is the top of the planet's volcanic Eye Stage activity associated with highly active core magma flows. Jupiter is exhibiting strong Eye activity and probably is still in the Mid Eye Stage (equivalent to 4By ago on Earth). Jupiter emits heat (4×1017Watts, or 1.67 times solar input), but significantly less on a proportion basis than Saturn (2×1017Watts, or 1.8 times solar input). This suggests Jupiter's insulated heat lie under the cover of blanket cloud (cloud deck temperature -120oC). Saturn is cooling more rapidly due to an effective condensation path.
Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar system and surrounded by at least 16 satellites and a faint ring system. 

Four bands of orbiting Jovian satellites exist (other than Mars and the Asteroid Belt see Planets Satellites and Landforms). The first, small, inamost group of four include Metis, Adrastea, Amalthea, and Thebe. Metis and Adrastea are the inner satellites and associate with the dark faint Jovian ring system. The satellites appear as small rocky bodies.

Group two is the large "Galilean Satellites" Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. These have densities reducing with increasing distance from Jupiter (3.5, 3.3, 1.9, 1.6). The reducing densities are probably due to increasing proportions of water. Ganymede shows a magnetic field suggesting this satellite may have a molten iron core. This could be due to the satellite launching when an inner core of Jupiter ruptured and ejected iron with the satellite. Water was probably stripped from the innermost satellites due to their proximity with Jupiter.


Group three is four smaller satellites, Leda, Himalia, Elara, and Lysithea. Orbits for group three differ in that they are steeply inclined to the planets equatorial plane. However, groups 1-3 all have posigrade orbit directions. This is the same as Mars, the Asteroids, and most planets.

However, the fourth outermost satellite cluster of four small bodies (Pasiphae, Sinope, Carme, & Ananke) have
retrograde orbits. Opposing orbits in this satellite group suggest an unusual origin.

A plausible explanation relates to the large size of the planet Jupiter. The sequence of events shows in the figures opposite. It is possible that the original ejectile phase was so dramatic that it; provided Jupiter with a solar rotation, launched Mars, and the Asteroid-belt, and the three inner satellite-rings

This event also continued for a sufficiently long period for the ejectile plume to cross the orbiting path of Jupiter. As the plume aligned with the orbiting path, it pushed Jupiter into a higher solar orbit. This also prevented Mars and the Asteroids from reentering the Jovian gravitational system.

Once the plume crossed the orbiting path, any satellites launched has a retrograde orbiting direction. (A similar situation occurs with the outermost satellite Phoebe at Saturn). This logic suggests that the outer Jovian satellites were launched after the innermost satellites, and possibly represent material separated from a rupturing inner shell of the great planet.

Both outer satellite groups show very erratic orbits. These are consistent with particles launching into a region where gravitation components from both the Sun and Jupiter are acting in the same direction. This soon alters to the Sun acting against Jupiter as the satellites swing between the two masses for the first time. Minor differentiation of the launch trajectories results in widely dissimilar elliptical paths.
Between the Second and Third Stages the ejectile plume passed from the first quadrant to the second quadrant, and across the sidereal orbiting path of Jupiter. Any satellites launched during that transit period would have a lower sidereal velocity than Jupiter, with no propensity to orbit the planet. This would place them in a lower solar orbit and Mercury is considered to be a candidate for this mode of initiation. In this event Mercury would have launched soon after Callisto.

After more sober reflection on this point (21 Jan 2002) and doing some calculations detailing the required escape velocities, together with consideration of Kepler's second law, I have concluded that Mercury could only have launched from Earth, not Jupiter.

However, Pluto and Charon most probably launched from Jupiter as discussed in the next paragraph, but there remains a smaller possibility that they could have launched from Saturn.

However, it is plausible that Jupiter continued to launch satellites as the ejectile plume moved from the second quadrant and into the third quadrant. Objects launched at this stage move ahead of Jupiter and follow a higher lunar obit. Small rocky objects like Pluto and Charon are candidates for this mode of solar orbit launch.

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