NOTE TO THE FILES

Date: 22 March, 1998

Author: R.A. Beatty

Subject: WAS SIR ISAAC NEWTON AHEAD OF OUR TIME?

INTRODUCTION

Great astronomical conundrums include "Black Holes", an "Expanding Universe", the nature of a "Gravitational Field", and the "Big Bang". Modern evidence points to a series of high density regions in outer space where gravity is so strong that nothing can escape including light. These regions are inferred where material from an adjacent star, spirals into oblivion at the Black Hole. A primordial Big Bang initiation is postulated to explain stellar observations showing galaxies moving rapidly away from each other in an Expanding Universe.

PHYSICAL LAWS

Two famous laws of physics affect these conundrums. The first is Newton's law of gravitation where Fg = Gm1m2 ÷ r2, and the second is Albert Einstein's expression E = mc2.

DEDUCTIONS

• From Newton we can say gravitation in the universe is a function of the mass contained therein, and deduce that Fu is proportional to Mu (the mean gravitational force in the universe is proportional to the total mass). Also the gravitational force Fu in the universe, is a function of the gravitation field Gf, and therefore Fu is proportional to Mu is proportional to Gf.
• If we consider the mass of the universe to be a finite quantity. Einstein's equation (E=mc2) teaches us that the inherent energy (Eu) is directly proportional to the mass (Mu), or Eu is proportional to Mu. CONCLUSIONS

• If Eu is proportional to Mu, and Gf is proportional to Mu, then Gf is proportional to Eu. When a mass (M) is consumed in a Black Hole, it initially converts to energy (E), but then reverts to strengthening the background gravitational field (G). This is akin to burning coal in a series of electricity generating stations to feed power into a national grid system.
• We also conclude that if energy, mass, and gravitation are dependent variables, then a universal strengthening of the gravitational field increases the universal mass. This inference can be drawn from Newton's equation rewritten as Fg  Gm1m2÷r2. We usually read this equation to mean the mass and geometry of a system determines its force of gravity. However, conversely we may deduce that the mass is influenced by changes in the system's gravitational field.
• This leads to the possibility of a steady state universe where mass is consumed in peripheral Black Holes and replaced by mass continuously moving out from the centre. (An apparently Expanding Universe.) Black Holes fortify the background Gravitational Field, which serves to replenish mass throughout the universe, thereby completing the cycle.

COROLLARY

1) A corollary to these thoughts is that our Universe is neither expanding nor contracting, but has reached a steady state. Matter is cycling through the system as shown, and we do not know how many times it has returned. We only know that one cycle takes about 15b years, and a "Big Bang" is not required to start a cycle.

2) The mass of objects within the gravitational field should be increasing with time. Refer Note 2 for more on this point.